Power systems are the systems that generate power. The power system covers all three areas from generation to distribution, and from distribution to transmission. There are many types of Power systems on which we are running, using different new emerging technology, which includes power generation by oil and coal mode, thermal source, hydel power, wind power, tidal energy, solar, or a hybrid of solar-wind or any other combination of energies like vibrating energy combine with solar and wind energy. When building a power system there are other components involved that are combined to make fully functional and reliable electricity at the consumer load, rather than just solar arrays. There are the following solar-operated power systems for households and industries.
- Off-Grid power system
- and On-Grid power system
- And hybrid power system
In this article, we will consider our focus on the Off-Grid power system and On-Grid power system.
Without Grid Solar Power Systems are helpful in places where a utility power provider is not accessible or has yet to develop. An Off-Grid-connected solar power system (SPV) ideally suits this scenario, where there is no access to power (supply) or the small load, or in distant places because this system does not use any other internal or external source of power. The only source of energy or power comes from the sun during peak hours. Stand-Alone PV Systems (SPVS) are known as Off-Grid Power Systems for this reason.
Solar arrays can only convert the sun’s energy into direct current electricity, and they can only create energy (power) during peak hours. When there is no sun source at night time, there is a system or component required to store that energy for the non-shining hours. To tackle this need batteries of different types are designed. Batteries are an important component in non-connected grid PV systems as they will fulfill our need of getting a power source at non-peak hours and store the daytime power for after use. - But if your load operated in daytime only like solar water pumping, then we can neglect the purpose of the battery from the Solar power system there.
- Based on our load demand and control circuitry, we are configuring the Standalone PV System (SPVS) into four different classifications:
- Standalone PV System (SPVS) having only DC load demand
- Standalone PV System (SPVS) combining DC load and Control Circuitry
- Standalone PV System (SPVS) with DC load and Control Circuitry with a combination of battery
- Standalone PV System (SPVS) all together with DC/AC load and Control Circuitry with the combination of battery
The electronic control circuitry is added to the Standalone PV System (SPVS) due to two main reasons:
To improve the better functionality and operation of the load.
To improve the maximum and smooth utilization and performance of Solar PV Panel.
The only common, basic system that can function on any sort of residential load demand either AC or DC, is a Standalone Solar PV System. It is the best fit for the areas where there is no linked grid connectivity or grid connectivity is available for a very short time.
The Grid-connected Power system in which power generates, transmits, and distributes to our residential units and industrial units(consumer units).
The electricity generated during the sun-shine hours by the large Solar Power System is fed into the existing electricity grid. The massive SPV system does not consume the generated energy and rather stores it for use during non-peak hours, so all the power generated by the large solar power system directly transmits to the existing grid station so there is no purpose for batteries in an on-Grid Power System.
With battery storage and without battery connected grid configuration into two main categories.
On-Grid Power System without battery
An On-Grid Power System with a battery
However, in many areas, the small Solar power system that can produce power up to five kW also has a grid-connectivity system. In residential SPV systems, few of them connect with the battery. The operation of this system is that whenever the SPV module generates electricity in non-sunshine hours and generates power that is more than the consumers need, it transfers to the connected grid, and this system uses a connected grid as the storage medium. However, if the consumer load needs more power, it takes energy from the connected grid. Moreover, cost-saving for the consumers.
In the UK, much of the solar power is part of the Renewable Obligations (RO) scheme. Non - accredited solar power capacity, on the other hand, predicts to have reached 1,036.9 MW of power in 2020.